Square root of a number is a value, which, when multiplied by itself results in the value. Square root is represented by √ symbol. Thus,

√9 = 3, since 3 * 3 = 9.

In this article, we will look at different ways to calculate square root with python.

**Method 1: Using ** operator**

`**`

operator is used to raise a number to some power. Square root of a number is the number raised to a power of 1/2.Thus,

Square root = (Number)^{1/2}

Or

Square root = (Number)^{0.5}

Using this formula, python program to get square root can be written as

# read number num = int(input('Enter a number: ')) sqrt = num ** 0.5 print('Square root is:', sqrt)

Output is

Enter a number: 12

Square root is: 3.4641016151377544

**Method 2: Using pow() function**

Python’s math module has a

`pow()`

function which takes 2 arguments:1. Number whose square root needs to be calculated.

2. Power to which the number should be raised.

As stated above, square root of a number can be calculated by raising it to power 1/2 or 0.5. Hence, 0.5 supplied as second argument to `pow()`

results in square root of number. **Example,**

import math num = int(input('Enter a number: ')) # raise number to power of 0.5 sqrt = math.pow(num,0.5) print('Square root is:', sqrt)

Output is

Enter a number: 25

Square root is: 5.0

**Method 3: Using isqrt() function**

`isqrt()`

function of `math`

module calculates the square root of the values supplied as argument and returns the integer or whole number part of square root. **Example,**

import math num = int(input('Enter a number: ')) sqrt = math.isqrt(num) print('Square root is:', sqrt)

Output of this program is

Enter a number: 27

Square root is 5

Note that the square root of 25 is 5.2(rounded off) but `isqrt()`

returns its integer part, that is, 5.

**Square root of complex numbers**

Complex numbers are represented as x + yj

where,

x and y are real numbers and j is imaginary unit.

It is possible to find the square root of a complex number using `sqrt()`

function of python’s `cmath`

module.

`sqrt()`

accepts a complex number as argument and returns its square root.

Real and imaginary parts of the square root can be accessed using `real`

and `imag`

fields of this square root respectively.

Example program is given below

import cmath # define a complex number num = 5 + 4j # find its square root sqrt = cmath.sqrt(num) print('Square root is {0:0.2f} + {1:0.2f}j'.format(sqrt.real,sqrt.imag))

This prints

Square root is 2.39 + 0.84j

Square root values are formatted to 2 decimal places.

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