spread operator is applied to javascript arrays or any value that can be iterated such as a string or an object. It spreads or extracts the elements of the iterable.

spread operator is an addition in ES6. There are many different uses of this operator such as

  • Merging two arrays.
  • Cloning an array with the ability to add new elements to the new array.
  • Cloning an object with the provision to add new entries to the cloned object.
  • Enables to supply an array directly where a series of arguments is expected such as in Math.max function.

All of these applications of spread will be discussed in this article with examples.
Official mozilla  docs for spread operator state

Spread syntax allows an iterable such as an array expression or string to be expanded in places where zero or more arguments (for function calls) or elements (for array literals) are expected, or an object expression to be expanded in places where zero or more key-value pairs (for object literals) are expected.

spread operator consists of three periods(...) which are applied before the iterable(array, string or object) that needs to be expanded or spread. Example,

let arr = ['google', 'facebook', 'youtube'];
// extract array with spread operator
console.log(...arr); // will print google facebook youtube

From the above output, you can see the spread operator extracts the contents of array. Remember that you cannot assign the extracted contents to another variable.
That is, you cannot do something like this

let extract = ...arr;

This will raise Unexpected token ‘…’ error. This is because it would be translated to

let extract = google facebook youtube;

which clearly looks illegal.
There is much more that you can do with spread operator and all of those are discussed below.

Merge arrays with spread
Suppose you want to merge the contents of one array into another. A common approach would be to iterate over the array which you want to merge and push its element into the other array as shown below.

let arrayOne = [1, 2, 3];
let arrayTwo = [4, 5];
// iterate over the second array
for(let i = 0; i < arrayTwo.length;i++) {
   // add element to first array
// print first array
console.log(arrayOne); // prints [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

spread operator can be used to accomplish exactly the same task but in a much more easier and shorter way as shown below.

let arrayTwo = [4, 5];
let arrayOne = [1, 2, 3, ...arrayTwo];
// print first array
console.log(arrayOne); // prints [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

spread operator when placed before an array extracts its contents and spreads them out .
Another flexibility with merging arrays using spread operator is that you can merge an array at the location you want, that is, at the beginning, in the middle or at the end(that we just saw above). Thus,

let arrayTwo = [4, 5];
// merge array in between with spread
let arrayOne = [1,  ...arrayTwo, 2, 3];
// print first array
console.log(arrayOne); // prints [1, 4, 5, 2, 3]

This would become complex with the looping approach.
Splitting a string into characters
spread operator may be used to extract the characters from a string in the form of an array. This might be useful when you want to iterate over the characters of an array for checking if the string contains a numeric character. Example,

let name = 'codippa';
let chars = ...name;
console.log(chars); // prints ['c', 'o', 'd, 'i', 'p', 'p', 'a',]

Cloning an array
A spread operator can be used to create a clone of an array. As we saw above, spread when placed before an array extracts its elements.
These elements when placed between square brackets will create a new array. Note that the new array is not a copy but a fresh array object with the contents of the original array.
It means that if you modify the contents of the new array, the original array remains unchanged. Example,

 let arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
 // create a clone
 let cloned = [...arr];
 // add an element to new array
 // print arrays
 console.log(cloned); // prints ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
 console.log(arr); // prints ['a', 'b', 'c']

Look, the original array remains unchanged. This is different from creating a copy just by assigning an array to a new variable as below.

let arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
// create a copy
let cloned = arr;

In this method, if you modify the new array, the original array will also be modified.
Cloning an object
Similar to the method of cloning arrays, spread operator can be applied on objects to create a clone of a javascript object or a copy object.
Though there are different methods to clone an object in javascript but the one with spread is the easiest and shortest.
In order to clone an object place the spread operator before the object and enclose them between curly braces(which is the syntax of creating an object in javascript).

let website = { name: 'codippa', 
// create object clone
let cloned = {...website};
console.log(cloned); // prints { name: 'codippa', type:'education' };

You can also add additional properties in the new object as shown below.

let website = { name: 'codippa', 
let cloned = { ...website, genre: 'tech' };
console.log(cloned);  // prints { name: 'codippa', type:'education', genre: 'tech' }

In this case also, the original object remains unchanged.

Passing array to functions
Math object in javascript contains utility methods for performing mathematical operations such as max method for finding maximum from some numbers.
This method accepts a series of numbers out of which it returns the maximum number. But what if you pass an array to this method as shown below.

let numbers = [2, 4, 5, 1, 20];
// pass array to function
let max = Math.max(numbers);

This will not print the maximum number but will print NaN which means that you cannot pass an array to Math methods.
But, with spread operator you can pass an array to Math functions as shown below.

let numbers = [2,4,5,1,20];
// pass array with spread
let max = Math.max(...numbers);

This makes sense since spread operator extracts the elements of an array. Thus when spread is applied to the array, it will be transformed to Math.max(2, 4, 5, 1, 20).
In fact, any function which expects arguments can be called with an array with spread operator as shown in the below example.

// add three arguments
function adder(numOne, numTwo, numThree) {
   return numOne + numTwo + numThree;
// declare array
let numbers = [23, 56, 22];
// pass array with spread operator
let sum = adder(...numbers);
console.log(sum); // prints 111

Without spread, you need to pass three separate numbers to a function.
Hope this article clarified the usage of spread operator introduced as a new feature in ES6. Click the clap if the article was helpful.

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